美國心理學會(American Psychiatric Association,APA)1998年就已做成正式決議Legal benefits for same-sex couples,表示贊同同性伴侶關係的合法化,在2004年也做成政策聲明支持同性婚姻APA又於2011年做成另一項政策聲明,表明贊同同性婚姻。APA是心理學領域最重要的學術組織之一,所謂APA論文格式即是該組織所發展的。



Resolution on Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples

Adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on August 3-5, 2011.




Whereas people benefit by sharing their lives with and receiving support from their family, friends, and other people who are important to them 鑒於人們將自其家人、朋友以及其他對他們而言重要的人共享生活、獲得支持而獲益 (Cohen & Wills, 1985);

Whereas a person’s sexual orientation defines the universe of persons with whom he or she is likely to find the satisfying and fulfilling romantic and intimate relationships that, for many individuals, comprise an essential component of personal identity 鑒於一個人的性傾向決定了他會從誰獲得滿意及完整的浪漫和親密關係,對許多人而言,這是人格認同的基本部分(D’Augelli, 2000; Gonsiorek & Weinrich, 1991; Herek, 2001, 2006; Peplau & Garnets, 2000);

Whereas homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexual orientation that poses no inherent obstacle to leading a happy, healthy, and productive life, including the capacity to form healthy and mutually satisfying intimate relationships with another person of the same sex and to raise healthy and well-adjusted children, as documented by several professional organizations 鑒於同性戀是一種正常的人類性傾向的表現,並不會附隨著對快樂、健康、豐富生活的阻礙,包含與另一個同性別的人建立健康、互相滿足的親密關係的能力、養育健康且適應良好的小孩,如同許多專業組織證實的(American Psychiatric Association, 1974; American Psychological Association, 2004a, 2004b; Conger, 1975, National Association of Social Workers, 2003);  


Whereas many gay men and lesbians, like their heterosexual counterparts, desire to form stable, long-lasting, and committed intimate relationships and are successful in doing so 鑒於許多同性戀男女如同異性戀一般渴望建立穩定、長期、有承諾的親密關係,也成功的做到了(Gates, 2006; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001; Herek, Norton, Allen, & Sims 2010; Peplau & Fingerhut, 2007; Simmons & O’Connell, 2003);


Whereas the consideration of policies to provide or deny same-sex couples full access to civil marriage and other legal forms of family formation in all branches of both the federal and state governments in the United States has frequently subjected the human rights of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people to public debate and resulted in wide variation among jurisdictions in access to these rights (Gates, Badgett, & Ho, 2008; Hatzenbuehler, McLaughlin, Keyes, & Hasin, 2010; Herek, 2006; National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 2010; Rostosky, Riggle, & Horne 2009; Russell, 2000);  


Whereas emerging evidence suggests that statewide campaigns to deny same-sex couples legal access to civil marriage are a significant source of stress to the lesbian, gay, and bisexual residents of those states and may have negative effects on their psychological well-being鑒於出現的證據顯示各州否認同性伴侶的法律地位的運動形成了對LGB族群的壓力,且可能對他們的心理健康造成負面影響 (Hatzenbuehler et al., 2010; Rostosky et al., 2009);  


Whereas the denial of civil marriage, including the creation of legal statuses such as civil unions and domestic partnerships, stigmatizes same-sex relationships, perpetuates the stigma historically attached to homosexuality, and reinforces prejudice against lesbian, gay, and bisexual people 鑒於否認婚姻,包括創造所謂民事結合和家事伴侶的法律地位,汙名化了同性關係,鞏固了長期以來跟同性戀連繫在一起的汙名,以及加強了對LGB族群的汙名與偏見(Badgett, 2009; Herek, 2006; Hull, 2006);  


Whereas many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults who are in a committed same-sex relationship have taken advantage of the right to marriage, either in their home jurisdictions or in other jurisdictions, even though many jurisdictions that do not permit marriage of same-sex couples do not recognize these valid marriages 鑒於許多處於同性親密關係的LGB成人將自獲得結婚的權利中獲益,不管是其所在的司法區域或其他地方的司法區域,即使許多司法區域不承認其他地方的同性婚姻(Badgett, 2009; Gates et al., 2008; Herel, Marech, & Lelchuk, 2004; Marech, 2004);  


Whereas many other adults who are in a committed same-sex relationship wish to marry, but are prevented by state law from being married in their home jurisdiction or from receiving recognition of their marriages performed elsewhere鑒於許多處在一個帶承諾的親密關係中的成人希望結婚,但卻被阻於本州或他州的法律之外 (Herek et al., 2010);


Whereas empirical research demonstrates that the psychological and social aspects of committed relationships between same-sex partners closely resemble those of heterosexual partnerships, and an emerging research literature suggests that legally recognized same-sex relationships may also be similar to heterosexual marriages in these psychological and social aspects 鑒於實證研究已指出同性間的親密關係和異性間的親密關係在心理或社會層面非常相似,而也有研究指出被法律承認的同性關係跟異性婚姻在心理及社會層面也非常相似 (Balsam, Beauchaine, Rothblum, & Solomon, 2008; Kurdek, 2004, 2005; Peplau & Fingerhut, 2007);


Whereas married individuals generally receive social, economic, health, and psychological benefits from their marital status, including numerous rights and benefits provided by private employers and by state and federal governments鑒於已婚者通常能自其婚姻狀態獲得社會的、經濟的、健康的、心理的好處,包括許多多私人雇主和州或聯邦政府提供的利益 (Badgett, 2001; Brown, 2000; Chauncey 2005; Gove, Hughes, & Style, 1983; Gove, Style, & Hughes, 1990; Kiecolt-Glaser, 2001; Murray, 2000; Ross, Mirowsky, Goldsteen, 1990; Stack & Eshleman, 1998; Williams, 2003;


Whereas all people can be adversely affected by high levels of stress and the link between experiencing stress and manifesting symptoms of psychological or physical illness is well established in human beings and other species (Cohen, Doyle, & Skoner, 1999; Dohrenwend, 2000); Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles, & Glaser, 2002);  


Whereas individuals with a homosexual or bisexual orientation are often subjected to minority stress, that is, additional stress beyond what is normally experienced by the heterosexual population, as a consequence of stigma, discrimination, and violence (Badgett, 2001; Berrill, 1992; Herek, 2009; Herek, Gillis, Cogan, 1999; Mays & Cochran, 2001; Meyer, 1995; 2003; Meyer, Schwartz, & Frost, 2008); 



Whereas the experience of minority stress may create somewhat higher levels of illness or psychological distress in the sexual minority population, compared to the heterosexual population (Herek & Garnets, 2007; Mays & Cochran, 2001; Meyer, 1995; 2003);


Whereas minority stress is common to all minority groups that experience stressors due to prejudice and discrimination based on their minority status (Meyer, 2003);


Whereas lesbian, gay, and bisexuals with multiple minority statuses (e.g., people of color, persons with disabilities) often experience a dual minority stress that may negatively impact their mental health (Crawford, Allison, Zamboni, & Soto, 2002; Green, 1994; Harley, Nowak, Gassaway, & Savag, 2002).


Whereas policies supportive of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people’s human rights may have positive effects on their psychological well-being鑒於政策支持對LGB的心理健康有正面影響 (Blake, Ledsky, Lehman, Goodenow, Sawyer, Hack, 2001; Goodenow, Szalacha, & Westheimer, 2006; Hatzenbuehler, Keyes, Hasin, 2009);


Therefore be it resolved that the American Psychological Association supports full marriage equality for same-sex couples;



Be it further resolved that the American Psychological Association reiterates its opposition to ballot measures, statutes, constitutional amendments, and other forms of discriminatory policy aimed at limiting lesbian, gay, and bisexual people’s access to legal protections for their human rights, including such measures as those that deny same-sex couples the right to marry APA也重申反對任何旨在支持限制LGB族群得到人權保障,包括同性婚姻的公投、法律、憲法修正案或歧視性的政策(Conger, 1975, APA 2007);


Be it further resolved that the American Psychological Association calls on state governments to repeal all measures that deny same-sex couples the right to civil marriage and to enact laws to provide full marriage equality to same-sex couples; APA也呼籲州政府撤回所有拒絕同性伴侶結婚權利的措施,並制定法律保障同性伴侶有完整的婚姻平等。


Be it further resolved that the American Psychological Association calls on the federal government to extend full recognition to legally married same-sex couples, and to accord them all of the rights, benefits, and responsibilities that it provides to legally married different-sex couples; APA呼籲聯邦政府承認目前的同性婚姻,且賦予其和異性婚姻相同的權利、利益和責任。


Be it further resolved that the American Psychological Association encourages psychologists and other behavioral scientists to conduct quality research that extends our understanding of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population, including the role of close relationships and family formation on the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and youths; APA呼籲心理學家和行為科學家從事公平的研究,擴展我們對LGB人口和其親密關係、家庭組成,以及LGB青少年和成人的心理健康的理解。


 Be it further resolved that the American Psychological Association encourages psychologists and other professionals with appropriate knowledge to take the lead in developing interventions and in educating the public to reduce prejudice and discrimination and to help ameliorate the negative effects of stigma; APA也鼓勵心理學家及其他專業人士帶著正確的知識領導介入並教育公眾以減少偏見與歧視,並協助減少汙名的負面影響。


 Be it further resolved that the American Psychological Association will work with government and private funding agencies to promote such research and interventions to improve the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. APA將與政府及私人機構合作促成類此的研究和干預以改善LGB族群的健康和福祉。

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